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Function

Note

Please always keep the schema name SEDONA (e.g., SEDONA.ST_GeomFromWKT) when you use Sedona functions to avoid conflicting with Snowflake's built-in functions.

GeometryType

Introduction: Returns the type of the geometry as a string. Eg: 'LINESTRING', 'POLYGON', 'MULTIPOINT', etc. This function also indicates if the geometry is measured, by returning a string of the form 'POINTM'.

Format: GeometryType (A: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT GeometryType(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));

Output:

 geometrytype
--------------
 LINESTRING
SELECT GeometryType(ST_GeomFromText('POINTM(0 0 1)'));

Output:

 geometrytype
--------------
 POINTM

ST_3DDistance

Introduction: Return the 3-dimensional minimum cartesian distance between A and B

Format: ST_3DDistance (A:geometry, B:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_3DDistance(polygondf.countyshape, polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AddPoint

Introduction: RETURN Linestring with additional point at the given index, if position is not available the point will be added at the end of line.

Format: ST_AddPoint(geom: geometry, point: geometry, position: integer)

Format: ST_AddPoint(geom: geometry, point: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AddPoint(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0)'), ST_GeomFromText('Point(21 52)'), 1)

SELECT ST_AddPoint(ST_GeomFromText('Linestring(0 0, 1 1, 1 0)'), ST_GeomFromText('Point(21 52)'))

Output:

LINESTRING(0 0, 21 52, 1 1, 1 0)
LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0, 21 52)

ST_Affine

Introduction: Apply an affine transformation to the given geometry.

ST_Affine has 2 overloaded signatures:

ST_Affine(geometry, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, xOff, yOff, zOff)

ST_Affine(geometry, a, b, d, e, xOff, yOff)

Based on the invoked function, the following transformation is applied:

x = a * x + b * y + c * z + xOff OR x = a * x + b * y + xOff

y = d * x + e * y + f * z + yOff OR y = d * x + e * y + yOff

z = g * x + f * y + i * z + zOff OR z = g * x + f * y + zOff

If the given geometry is empty, the result is also empty.

Format:

ST_Affine(geometry, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, xOff, yOff, zOff)

ST_Affine(geometry, a, b, d, e, xOff, yOff)

ST_Affine(geometry, 1, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 5, 4, 8, 3)

Input: LINESTRING EMPTY

Output: LINESTRING EMPTY

Input: POLYGON ((1 0 1, 1 1 1, 2 2 2, 1 0 1))

Output: POLYGON Z((9 11 11, 11 12 13, 18 16 23, 9 11 11))

Input: POLYGON ((1 0, 1 1, 2 1, 2 0, 1 0), (1 0.5, 1 0.75, 1.5 0.75, 1.5 0.5, 1 0.5))

Output: POLYGON((5 9, 7 10, 8 11, 6 10, 5 9), (6 9.5, 6.5 9.75, 7 10.25, 6.5 10, 6 9.5))

ST_Affine(geometry, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2)

Input: POLYGON EMPTY

Output: POLYGON EMPTY

Input: GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (MULTIPOLYGON (((1 0, 1 1, 2 1, 2 0, 1 0), (1 0.5, 1 0.75, 1.5 0.75, 1.5 0.5, 1 0.5)), ((5 0, 5 5, 7 5, 7 0, 5 0))), POINT (10 10))

Output: GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (MULTIPOLYGON (((2 3, 4 5, 5 6, 3 4, 2 3), (3 4, 3.5 4.5, 4 5, 3.5 4.5, 3 4)), ((6 7, 16 17, 18 19, 8 9, 6 7))), POINT (31 32))

Input: POLYGON ((1 0 1, 1 1 1, 2 2 2, 1 0 1))

Output: POLYGON Z((2 3 1, 4 5 1, 7 8 2, 2 3 1))

ST_Angle

Introduction: Computes and returns the angle between two vectors represented by the provided points or linestrings.

There are three variants possible for ST_Angle:

ST_Angle(point1: Geometry, point2: Geometry, point3: Geometry, point4: Geometry) Computes the angle formed by vectors represented by point1 - point2 and point3 - point4

ST_Angle(point1: Geometry, point2: Geometry, point3: Geometry) Computes the angle formed by vectors represented by point2 - point1 and point2 - point3

ST_Angle(line1: Geometry, line2: Geometry) Computes the angle formed by vectors S1 - E1 and S2 - E2, where S and E denote start and end points respectively

Note

If any other geometry type is provided, ST_Angle throws an IllegalArgumentException.

Additionally, if any of the provided geometry is empty, ST_Angle throws an IllegalArgumentException.

Note

If a 3D geometry is provided, ST_Angle computes the angle ignoring the z ordinate, equivalent to calling ST_Angle for corresponding 2D geometries.

Tip

ST_Angle returns the angle in radian between 0 and 2\Pi. To convert the angle to degrees, use ST_Degrees.

Format: ST_Angle(p1, p2, p3, p4) | ST_Angle(p1, p2, p3) | ST_Angle(line1, line2)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Angle(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(0 0)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (1 1)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(1 0)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(6 2)'))

Output:

0.4048917862850834

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Angle(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (1 1)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (0 0)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(3 2)'))

Output:

0.19739555984988044

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Angle(ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING (0 0, 1 1)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING (0 0, 3 2)'))

Output:

0.19739555984988044

ST_Area

Introduction: Return the area of A

Format: ST_Area (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Area(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AreaSpheroid

Introduction: Return the geodesic area of A using WGS84 spheroid. Unit is square meter. Works better for large geometries (country level) compared to ST_Area + ST_Transform. It is equivalent to PostGIS ST_Area(geography, use_spheroid=true) function and produces nearly identical results.

Geometry must be in EPSG:4326 (WGS84) projection and must be in lat/lon order. You can use ST_FlipCoordinates to swap lat and lon.

Format: ST_AreaSpheroid (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AreaSpheroid(ST_GeomFromWKT('Polygon ((35 34, 30 28, 34 25, 35 34))'))

Output: 201824850811.76245

ST_AsBinary

Introduction: Return the Well-Known Binary representation of a geometry

Format: ST_AsBinary (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsBinary(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsEWKB

Introduction: Return the Extended Well-Known Binary representation of a geometry. EWKB is an extended version of WKB which includes the SRID of the geometry. The format originated in PostGIS but is supported by many GIS tools. If the geometry is lacking SRID a WKB format is produced. See ST_SetSRID

Format: ST_AsEWKB (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsEWKB(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsEWKT

Introduction: Return the Extended Well-Known Text representation of a geometry. EWKT is an extended version of WKT which includes the SRID of the geometry. The format originated in PostGIS but is supported by many GIS tools. If the geometry is lacking SRID a WKT format is produced. See ST_SetSRID

Format: ST_AsEWKT (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsGeoJSON

Introduction: Return the GeoJSON string representation of a geometry

Format: ST_AsGeoJSON (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsGML

Introduction: Return the GML string representation of a geometry

Format: ST_AsGML (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsGML(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsKML

Introduction: Return the KML string representation of a geometry

Format: ST_AsKML (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsKML(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_AsText

Introduction: Return the Well-Known Text string representation of a geometry

Format: ST_AsText (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_AsText(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_Azimuth

Introduction: Returns Azimuth for two given points in radians null otherwise.

Format: ST_Azimuth(pointA: Point, pointB: Point)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Azimuth(ST_POINT(0.0, 25.0), ST_POINT(0.0, 0.0))

Output: 3.141592653589793

ST_Boundary

Introduction: Returns the closure of the combinatorial boundary of this Geometry.

Format: ST_Boundary(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Boundary(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 1,0 0, -1 1, 1 1))'))

Output: LINESTRING (1 1, 0 0, -1 1, 1 1)

ST_BoundingDiagonal

Introduction: Returns a linestring spanning minimum and maximum values of each dimension of the given geometry's coordinates as its start and end point respectively. If an empty geometry is provided, the returned LineString is also empty. If a single vertex (POINT) is provided, the returned LineString has both the start and end points same as the points coordinates

Format: ST_BoundingDiagonal(geom: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_BoundingDiagonal(ST_GeomFromWKT(geom))

Input: POLYGON ((1 1 1, 3 3 3, 0 1 4, 4 4 0, 1 1 1))

Output: LINESTRING Z(0 1 1, 4 4 4)

Input: POINT (10 10)

Output: LINESTRING (10 10, 10 10)

Input: GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POLYGON ((5 5 5, -1 2 3, -1 -1 0, 5 5 5)), POINT (10 3 3))

Output: LINESTRING Z(-1 -1 0, 10 5 5)

ST_Buffer

Introduction: Returns a geometry/geography that represents all points whose distance from this Geometry/geography is less than or equal to distance.

Format: ST_Buffer (A:geometry, buffer: Double)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Buffer(polygondf.countyshape, 1)
FROM polygondf

ST_BuildArea

Introduction: Returns the areal geometry formed by the constituent linework of the input geometry.

Format: ST_BuildArea (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_BuildArea(
    ST_GeomFromText('MULTILINESTRING((0 0, 20 0, 20 20, 0 20, 0 0),(2 2, 18 2, 18 18, 2 18, 2 2))')
) AS geom

Result:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                                        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|POLYGON((0 0,0 20,20 20,20 0,0 0),(2 2,18 2,18 18,2 18,2 2))                |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_Centroid

Introduction: Return the centroid point of A

Format: ST_Centroid (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Centroid(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_ClosestPoint

Introduction: Returns the 2-dimensional point on geom1 that is closest to geom2. This is the first point of the shortest line between the geometries. If using 3D geometries, the Z coordinates will be ignored. If you have a 3D Geometry, you may prefer to use ST_3DClosestPoint. It will throw an exception indicates illegal argument if one of the params is an empty geometry.

Format: ST_ClosestPoint(g1: Geometry, g2: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_ClosestPoint(g1, g2)) As ptwkt;

Input: g1: POINT (160 40), g2: LINESTRING (10 30, 50 50, 30 110, 70 90, 180 140, 130 190)

Output: POINT(160 40)

Input: g1: LINESTRING (10 30, 50 50, 30 110, 70 90, 180 140, 130 190), g2: POINT (160 40)

Output: POINT(125.75342465753425 115.34246575342466)

Input: g1: 'POLYGON ((190 150, 20 10, 160 70, 190 150))', g2: ST_Buffer('POINT(80 160)', 30)

Output: POINT(131.59149149528952 101.89887534906197)

ST_Collect

Introduction: Returns MultiGeometry object based on a geometry column.

Format

ST_Collect(*geom: geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_Collect(
    tbl.geom) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|MULTIPOINT ((21.427834 52.042576573), (45.342524 56.342354355))|
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Example:

SELECT ST_Collect(
    Array(
        ST_GeomFromText('POINT(21.427834 52.042576573)'),
        ST_GeomFromText('POINT(45.342524 56.342354355)')
    )
) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|MULTIPOINT ((21.427834 52.042576573), (45.342524 56.342354355))|
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_CollectionExtract

Introduction: Returns a homogeneous multi-geometry from a given geometry collection.

The type numbers are: 1. POINT 2. LINESTRING 3. POLYGON

If the type parameter is omitted a multi-geometry of the highest dimension is returned.

Format: ST_CollectionExtract (A:geometry)

Format: ST_CollectionExtract (A:geometry, type:Int)

Example:

WITH test_data as (
    ST_GeomFromText(
        'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(40 10), POLYGON((0 0, 0 5, 5 5, 5 0, 0 0)))'
    ) as geom
)
SELECT ST_CollectionExtract(geom) as c1, ST_CollectionExtract(geom, 1) as c2
FROM test_data

Result:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|c1                                        |c2                               |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0, 0 5, 5 5, 5 0, 0 0))) |MULTIPOINT(40 10)                |              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_ConcaveHull

Introduction: Return the Concave Hull of polgyon A, with alpha set to pctConvex[0, 1] in the Delaunay Triangulation method, the concave hull will not contain a hole unless allowHoles is set to true

Format: ST_ConcaveHull (A:geometry, pctConvex:float)

Format: ST_ConcaveHull (A:geometry, pctConvex:float, allowHoles:Boolean)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_ConcaveHull(polygondf.countyshape, pctConvex)`
FROM polygondf

ST_ConvexHull

Introduction: Return the Convex Hull of polgyon A

Format: ST_ConvexHull (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_ConvexHull(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_CoordDim

Introduction: Returns the coordinate dimensions of the geometry. It is an alias of ST_NDims.

Format: ST_CoordDim(geom: Geometry)

SQL Example with x, y, z coordinate:

SELECT ST_CoordDim(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1 2'))

Output:

3

SQL Example with x, y coordinate:

SELECT ST_CoordDim(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(3 7)'))

Output:

2

ST_Degrees

Introduction: Convert an angle in radian to degrees.

Format: ST_Degrees(angleInRadian)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Degrees(0.19739555984988044)

Output:

11.309932474020195

ST_Difference

Introduction: Return the difference between geometry A and B (return part of geometry A that does not intersect geometry B)

Format: ST_Difference (A:geometry, B:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_Difference(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((-3 -3, 3 -3, 3 3, -3 3, -3 -3))'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((0 -4, 4 -4, 4 4, 0 4, 0 -4))'))

Result:

POLYGON ((0 -3, -3 -3, -3 3, 0 3, 0 -3))

ST_Dimension

Introduction: Return the topological dimension of this Geometry object, which must be less than or equal to the coordinate dimension. OGC SPEC s2.1.1.1 - returns 0 for POINT, 1 for LINESTRING, 2 for POLYGON, and the largest dimension of the components of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. If the dimension is unknown (e.g. for an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION) 0 is returned.

Format: ST_Dimension (A: Geometry) | ST_Dimension (C: Geometrycollection)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Dimension('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(LINESTRING(1 1,0 0),POINT(0 0))');

Output:

1

ST_Distance

Introduction: Return the Euclidean distance between A and B

Format: ST_Distance (A:geometry, B:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Distance(polygondf.countyshape, polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_DistanceSphere

Introduction: Return the haversine / great-circle distance of A using a given earth radius (default radius: 6371008.0). Unit is meter. Compared to ST_Distance + ST_Transform, it works better for datasets that cover large regions such as continents or the entire planet. It is equivalent to PostGIS ST_Distance(geography, use_spheroid=false) and ST_DistanceSphere function and produces nearly identical results. It provides faster but less accurate result compared to ST_DistanceSpheroid.

Geometry must be in EPSG:4326 (WGS84) projection and must be in lat/lon order. You can use ST_FlipCoordinates to swap lat and lon. For non-point data, we first take the centroids of both geometries and then compute the distance.

Format: ST_DistanceSphere (A:geometry)

SQL example 1:

SELECT ST_DistanceSphere(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (51.3168 -0.56)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (55.9533 -3.1883)'))

Output: 543796.9506134904

SQL example 2:

SELECT ST_DistanceSphere(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (51.3168 -0.56)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (55.9533 -3.1883)'), 6378137.0)

Output: 544405.4459192449

ST_DistanceSpheroid

Introduction: Return the geodesic distance of A using WGS84 spheroid. Unit is meter. Compared to ST_Distance + ST_Transform, it works better for datasets that cover large regions such as continents or the entire planet. It is equivalent to PostGIS ST_Distance(geography, use_spheroid=true) and ST_DistanceSpheroid function and produces nearly identical results. It provides slower but more accurate result compared to ST_DistanceSphere.

Geometry must be in EPSG:4326 (WGS84) projection and must be in lat/lon order. You can use ST_FlipCoordinates to swap lat and lon. For non-point data, we first take the centroids of both geometries and then compute the distance.

Format: ST_DistanceSpheroid (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_DistanceSpheroid(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (51.3168 -0.56)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (55.9533 -3.1883)'))

Output: 544430.9411996207

ST_Dump

Introduction: This is an aggregate function that takes a column of of geometries as input, and returns a single GeometryCollection of all these geometries.

Format: ST_Dump(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Dump(tbl.geom)

Output: GeometryCollection ( (10 40), (40 30), (20 20), (30 10) )

ST_DumpPoints

Introduction: Returns a MultiPoint geometry which consists of individual points that compose the input line string.

Format: ST_DumpPoints(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_DumpPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (0 0, 1 1, 1 0)'))

Output: MultiPoint ((0 0), (0 1), (1 1), (1 0), (0 0))

ST_EndPoint

Introduction: Returns last point of given linestring.

Format: ST_EndPoint(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_EndPoint(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(100 150,50 60, 70 80, 160 170)'))

Output: POINT(160 170)

ST_Envelope

Introduction: Return the envelop boundary of A

Format: ST_Envelope (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Envelope(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_ExteriorRing

Introduction: Returns a line string representing the exterior ring of the POLYGON geometry. Return NULL if the geometry is not a polygon.

Format: ST_ExteriorRing(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_ExteriorRing(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 1, 1 2 1, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))'))

Output: LINESTRING (0 0, 1 1, 1 2, 1 1, 0 0)

ST_FlipCoordinates

Introduction: Returns a version of the given geometry with X and Y axis flipped.

Format: ST_FlipCoordinates(A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_FlipCoordinates(df.geometry)
FROM df

Input: POINT (1 2)

Output: POINT (2 1)

ST_Force_2D

Introduction: Forces the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode" so that all output representations will only have the X and Y coordinates

Format: ST_Force_2D (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_AsText(
    ST_Force_2D(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))'))
) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|POLYGON((0 0,0 5,5 0,0 0),(1 1,3 1,1 3,1 1))                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_Force3D

Introduction: Forces the geometry into a 3-dimensional model so that all output representations will have X, Y and Z coordinates. An optionally given zValue is tacked onto the geometry if the geometry is 2-dimensional. Default value of zValue is 0.0 If the given geometry is 3-dimensional, no change is performed on it. If the given geometry is empty, no change is performed on it.

Note

Example output is after calling ST_AsText() on returned geometry, which adds Z for in the WKT for 3D geometries

Format: ST_Force3D(geometry, zValue)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Force3D(geometry) AS geom

Input: LINESTRING(0 1, 1 2, 2 1)

Output: LINESTRING Z(0 1 0, 1 2 0, 2 1 0)

Input: POLYGON((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))

Output: POLYGON Z((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))

SELECT ST_Force3D(geometry, 2.3) AS geom

Input: LINESTRING(0 1, 1 2, 2 1)

Output: LINESTRING Z(0 1 2.3, 1 2 2.3, 2 1 2.3)

Input: POLYGON((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))

Output: POLYGON Z((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))

Input: LINESTRING EMPTY

Output: LINESTRING EMPTY

ST_FrechetDistance

Introduction: Computes and returns discrete Frechet Distance between the given two geometries, based on Computing Discrete Frechet Distance

If any of the geometries is empty, returns 0.0

Format: ST_FrechetDistance(g1: Geometry, g2: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_FrechetDistance(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (0 1)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING (0 0, 1 0, 2 0, 3 0, 4 0, 5 0)'))

Output:

5.0990195135927845

ST_GeoHash

Introduction: Returns GeoHash of the geometry with given precision

Format: ST_GeoHash(geom: geometry, precision: int)

Example:

Query:

SELECT ST_GeoHash(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(21.427834 52.042576573)'), 5) AS geohash

Result:

+-----------------------------+
|geohash                      |
+-----------------------------+
|u3r0p                        |
+-----------------------------+

ST_GeometricMedian

Introduction: Computes the approximate geometric median of a MultiPoint geometry using the Weiszfeld algorithm. The geometric median provides a centrality measure that is less sensitive to outlier points than the centroid.

The algorithm will iterate until the distance change between successive iterations is less than the supplied tolerance parameter. If this condition has not been met after maxIter iterations, the function will produce an error and exit, unless failIfNotConverged is set to false.

If a tolerance value is not provided, a default tolerance value is 1e-6.

Format: ST_GeometricMedian(geom: geometry, tolerance: float, maxIter: integer, failIfNotConverged: boolean)

Format: ST_GeometricMedian(geom: geometry, tolerance: float, maxIter: integer)

Format: ST_GeometricMedian(geom: geometry, tolerance: float)

Format: ST_GeometricMedian(geom: geometry)

Default parameters: tolerance: 1e-6, maxIter: 1000, failIfNotConverged: false

Example:

SELECT ST_GeometricMedian(ST_GeomFromWKT('MULTIPOINT((0 0), (1 1), (2 2), (200 200))'))

Output:

POINT (1.9761550281255005 1.9761550281255005)

ST_GeometryN

Introduction: Return the 0-based Nth geometry if the geometry is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, (MULTI)POINT, (MULTI)LINESTRING, MULTICURVE or (MULTI)POLYGON. Otherwise, return null

Format: ST_GeometryN(geom: geometry, n: Int)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_GeometryN(ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOINT((1 2), (3 4), (5 6), (8 9))'), 1)

Output: POINT (3 4)

ST_GeometryType

Introduction: Returns the type of the geometry as a string. EG: 'ST_Linestring', 'ST_Polygon' etc.

Format: ST_GeometryType (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_GeometryType(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_HausdorffDistance

Introduction: Returns a discretized (and hence approximate) Hausdorff distance between the given 2 geometries. Optionally, a densityFraction parameter can be specified, which gives more accurate results by densifying segments before computing hausdorff distance between them. Each segment is broken down into equal-length subsegments whose ratio with segment length is closest to the given density fraction.

Hence, the lower the densityFrac value, the more accurate is the computed hausdorff distance, and the more time it takes to compute it.

If any of the geometry is empty, 0.0 is returned.

Note

Accepted range of densityFrac is (0.0, 1.0], if any other value is provided, ST_HausdorffDistance throws an IllegalArgumentException

Note

Even though the function accepts 3D geometry, the z ordinate is ignored and the computed hausdorff distance is equivalent to the geometries not having the z ordinate.

Format: ST_HausdorffDistance(g1: Geometry, g2: Geometry, densityFrac: Double)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_HausdorffDistance(ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT (0.0 1.0)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING (0 0, 1 0, 2 0, 3 0, 4 0, 5 0)'), 0.1)

Output:

5.0990195135927845

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_HausdorffDistance(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON Z((1 0 1, 1 1 2, 2 1 5, 2 0 1, 1 0 1))'), ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON Z((4 0 4, 6 1 4, 6 4 9, 6 1 3, 4 0 4))'))

Output:

5.0

ST_InteriorRingN

Introduction: Returns the Nth interior linestring ring of the polygon geometry. Returns NULL if the geometry is not a polygon or the given N is out of range

Format: ST_InteriorRingN(geom: geometry, n: Int)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_InteriorRingN(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0, 0 5, 5 5, 5 0, 0 0), (1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 1), (1 3, 2 3, 2 4, 1 4, 1 3), (3 3, 4 3, 4 4, 3 4, 3 3))'), 0)

Output: LINESTRING (1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 1)

ST_Intersection

Introduction: Return the intersection geometry of A and B

Format: ST_Intersection (A:geometry, B:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Intersection(polygondf.countyshape, polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_IsClosed

Introduction: RETURNS true if the LINESTRING start and end point are the same.

Format: ST_IsClosed(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_IsClosed(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0)'))

Output: false

ST_IsCollection

Introduction: Returns TRUE if the geometry type of the input is a geometry collection type. Collection types are the following:

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
  • MULTI{POINT, POLYGON, LINESTRING}

Format: ST_IsCollection(geom: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_IsCollection(ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOINT(0 0), (6 6)'))

Output:

true

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_IsCollection(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(5 5)'))

Output:

false

ST_IsEmpty

Introduction: Test if a geometry is empty geometry

Format: ST_IsEmpty (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_IsEmpty(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_IsRing

Introduction: RETURN true if LINESTRING is ST_IsClosed and ST_IsSimple.

Format: ST_IsRing(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_IsRing(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 0 1, 1 1, 1 0, 0 0)'))

Output: true

ST_IsSimple

Introduction: Test if geometry's only self-intersections are at boundary points.

Format: ST_IsSimple (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_IsSimple(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_IsValid

Introduction: Test if a geometry is well formed. The function can be invoked with just the geometry or with an additional flag (from v1.5.1). The flag alters the validity checking behavior. The flags parameter is a bitfield with the following options:

  • 0 (default): Use usual OGC SFS (Simple Features Specification) validity semantics.
  • 1: "ESRI flag", Accepts certain self-touching rings as valid, which are considered invalid under OGC standards.

Formats:

ST_IsValid (A: Geometry)
ST_IsValid (A: Geometry, flag: Integer)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_IsValid(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON((0 0, 10 0, 10 10, 0 10, 0 0), (15 15, 15 20, 20 20, 20 15, 15 15))'))

Output:

false

ST_IsValidReason

Introduction: Returns text stating if the geometry is valid. If not, it provides a reason why it is invalid. The function can be invoked with just the geometry or with an additional flag. The flag alters the validity checking behavior. The flags parameter is a bitfield with the following options:

  • 0 (default): Use usual OGC SFS (Simple Features Specification) validity semantics.
  • 1: "ESRI flag", Accepts certain self-touching rings as valid, which are considered invalid under OGC standards.

Formats:

ST_IsValidReason (A: Geometry)
ST_IsValidReason (A: Geometry, flag: Integer)

SQL Example for valid geometry:

SELECT ST_IsValidReason(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((100 100, 100 300, 300 300, 300 100, 100 100))')) as validity_info

Output:

Valid Geometry

SQL Example for invalid geometries:

SELECT gid, ST_IsValidReason(geom) as validity_info
FROM Geometry_table
WHERE ST_IsValid(geom) = false
ORDER BY gid

Output:

gid  |                  validity_info
-----+----------------------------------------------------
5330 | Self-intersection at or near point (32.0, 5.0, NaN)
5340 | Self-intersection at or near point (42.0, 5.0, NaN)
5350 | Self-intersection at or near point (52.0, 5.0, NaN)

ST_Length

Introduction: Return the perimeter of A

Format: ST_Length (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Length(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_LengthSpheroid

Introduction: Return the geodesic perimeter of A using WGS84 spheroid. Unit is meter. Works better for large geometries (country level) compared to ST_Length + ST_Transform. It is equivalent to PostGIS ST_Length(geography, use_spheroid=true) and ST_LengthSpheroid function and produces nearly identical results.

Geometry must be in EPSG:4326 (WGS84) projection and must be in lat/lon order. You can use ST_FlipCoordinates to swap lat and lon.

Format: ST_LengthSpheroid (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_LengthSpheroid(ST_GeomFromWKT('Polygon ((0 0, 0 90, 0 0))'))

Output: 20037508.342789244

ST_LineFromMultiPoint

Introduction: Creates a LineString from a MultiPoint geometry.

Format: ST_LineFromMultiPoint (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_AsText(
    ST_LineFromMultiPoint(ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOINT((10 40), (40 30), (20 20), (30 10))'))
) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|LINESTRING (10 40, 40 30, 20 20, 30 10)                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_LineInterpolatePoint

Introduction: Returns a point interpolated along a line. First argument must be a LINESTRING. Second argument is a Double between 0 and 1 representing fraction of total linestring length the point has to be located.

Format: ST_LineInterpolatePoint (geom: geometry, fraction: Double)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_LineInterpolatePoint(ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING(25 50, 100 125, 150 190)'), 0.2) as Interpolated

Output:

+-----------------------------------------+
|Interpolated                             |
+-----------------------------------------+
|POINT (51.5974135047432 76.5974135047432)|
+-----------------------------------------+

ST_LineLocatePoint

Introduction: Returns a double between 0 and 1, representing the location of the closest point on the LineString as a fraction of its total length. The first argument must be a LINESTRING, and the second argument is a POINT geometry.

Format: ST_LineLocatePoint(linestring: Geometry, point: Geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_LineLocatePoint(ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 2 2)'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POINT(0 2)'))

Output:

0.5

ST_LineMerge

Introduction: Returns a LineString formed by sewing together the constituent line work of a MULTILINESTRING.

Note

Only works for MULTILINESTRING. Using other geometry will return a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY. If the MultiLineString can't be merged, the original MULTILINESTRING is returned.

Format: ST_LineMerge (A:geometry)

SELECT ST_LineMerge(geometry)
FROM df

ST_LineSubstring

Introduction: Return a linestring being a substring of the input one starting and ending at the given fractions of total 2d length. Second and third arguments are Double values between 0 and 1. This only works with LINESTRINGs.

Format: ST_LineSubstring (geom: geometry, startfraction: Double, endfraction: Double)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_LineSubstring(ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING(25 50, 100 125, 150 190)'), 0.333, 0.666) as Substring

Output:

+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Substring                                                                                       |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|LINESTRING (69.28469348539744 94.28469348539744, 100 125, 111.70035626068274 140.21046313888758)|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_MakeLine

Introduction: Creates a LineString containing the points of Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries. Other geometry types cause an error.

Format:

ST_MakeLine(geom1: Geometry, geom2: Geometry)

ST_MakeLine(geoms: Geometry) This Geometry must be a GeometryCollection of the geometry types listed above.

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_MakeLine(ST_Point(1,2), ST_Point(3,4)) );

Output:

LINESTRING(1 2,3 4)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_MakeLine( 'LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)', 'LINESTRING(2 2, 3 3)' ) );

Output:

 LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2,3 3)

ST_MakePolygon

Introduction: Function to convert closed linestring to polygon including holes. The holes must be a MultiLinestring.

Format: ST_MakePolygon(geom: geometry, holes: <geometry>)

Example:

Query:

SELECT
    ST_MakePolygon(
        ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(7 -1, 7 6, 9 6, 9 1, 7 -1)'),
        ST_GeomFromText('MultiLINESTRING((6 2, 8 2, 8 1, 6 1, 6 2))')
    ) AS polygon

Result:

+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|polygon                                                         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|POLYGON ((7 -1, 7 6, 9 6, 9 1, 7 -1), (6 2, 8 2, 8 1, 6 1, 6 2))|
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_MakeValid

Introduction: Given an invalid geometry, create a valid representation of the geometry.

Collapsed geometries are either converted to empty (keepCollaped=true) or a valid geometry of lower dimension (keepCollapsed=false). Default is keepCollapsed=false.

Format: ST_MakeValid (A:geometry)

Format: ST_MakeValid (A:geometry, keepCollapsed:Boolean)

SQL example:

WITH linestring AS (
    SELECT ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING(1 1, 1 1)') AS geom
) SELECT ST_MakeValid(geom), ST_MakeValid(geom, true) FROM linestring

Result:

+------------------+------------------------+
|st_makevalid(geom)|st_makevalid(geom, true)|
+------------------+------------------------+
|  LINESTRING EMPTY|             POINT (1 1)|
+------------------+------------------------+

Note

In Sedona up to and including version 1.2 the behaviour of ST_MakeValid was different. Be sure to check you code when upgrading. The previous implementation only worked for (multi)polygons and had a different interpretation of the second, boolean, argument. It would also sometimes return multiple geometries for a single geometry input.

ST_MinimumBoundingCircle

Introduction: Returns the smallest circle polygon that contains a geometry.

Format: ST_MinimumBoundingCircle(geom: geometry, [Optional] quadrantSegments:int)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_MinimumBoundingCircle(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 1,0 0, -1 1, 1 1))'))

ST_MinimumBoundingRadius

Introduction: Returns two columns containing the center point and radius of the smallest circle that contains a geometry.

Format: ST_MinimumBoundingRadius(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_MinimumBoundingRadius(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 1,0 0, -1 1, 1 1))'))

ST_Multi

Introduction: Returns a MultiGeometry object based on the geometry input. ST_Multi is basically an alias for ST_Collect with one geometry.

Format

ST_Multi(geom: geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_Multi(
    ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)')
) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|MULTIPOINT (1 1)                                               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_NDims

Introduction: Returns the coordinate dimension of the geometry.

Format: ST_NDims(geom: geometry)

SQL example with z co-rodinate:

SELECT ST_NDims(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 1 2)'))

Output: 3

SQL example with x,y coordinate:

SELECT ST_NDims(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)'))

Output: 2

ST_Normalize

Introduction: Returns the input geometry in its normalized form.

Format

ST_Normalize(geom: geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Normalize(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON((0 1, 1 1, 1 0, 0 0, 0 1))'))) AS geom

Result:

+-----------------------------------+
|geom                               |
+-----------------------------------+
|POLYGON ((0 0, 0 1, 1 1, 1 0, 0 0))|
+-----------------------------------+

ST_NPoints

Introduction: Return points of the geometry

Format: ST_NPoints (A:geometry)

SELECT ST_NPoints(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_NRings

Introduction: Returns the number of rings in a Polygon or MultiPolygon. Contrary to ST_NumInteriorRings, this function also takes into account the number of exterior rings.

This function returns 0 for an empty Polygon or MultiPolygon. If the geometry is not a Polygon or MultiPolygon, an IllegalArgument Exception is thrown.

Format: ST_NRings(geom: geometry)

Examples:

Input: POLYGON ((1 0, 1 1, 2 1, 2 0, 1 0))

Output: 1

Input: 'MULTIPOLYGON (((1 0, 1 6, 6 6, 6 0, 1 0), (2 1, 2 2, 3 2, 3 1, 2 1)), ((10 0, 10 6, 16 6, 16 0, 10 0), (12 1, 12 2, 13 2, 13 1, 12 1)))'

Output: 4

Input: 'POLYGON EMPTY'

Output: 0

Input: 'LINESTRING (1 0, 1 1, 2 1)'

Output: Unsupported geometry type: LineString, only Polygon or MultiPolygon geometries are supported.

ST_NumGeometries

Introduction: Returns the number of Geometries. If geometry is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (or MULTI*) return the number of geometries, for single geometries will return 1.

Format: ST_NumGeometries (A:geometry)

SELECT ST_NumGeometries(df.geometry)
FROM df

ST_NumInteriorRings

Introduction: RETURNS number of interior rings of polygon geometries.

Format: ST_NumInteriorRings(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_NumInteriorRings(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((0 0, 0 5, 5 5, 5 0, 0 0), (1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 1))'))

Output: 1

ST_NumPoints

Introduction: Returns number of points in a LineString

Format: ST_NumPoints(geom: geometry)

Note

If any other geometry is provided as an argument, an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_NumPoints(ST_GeomFromWKT('MULTIPOINT ((0 0), (1 1), (0 1), (2 2))'))

Output:

IllegalArgumentException: Unsupported geometry type: MultiPoint, only LineString geometry is supported.

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_NumPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 1, 1 0, 2 0)'))

Output: 3

ST_PointN

Introduction: Return the Nth point in a single linestring or circular linestring in the geometry. Negative values are counted backwards from the end of the LineString, so that -1 is the last point. Returns NULL if there is no linestring in the geometry.

Format: ST_PointN(geom: geometry, n: integer)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_PointN(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 2, 2 4, 3 6)'), 2) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|POINT (1 2)                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_PointOnSurface

Introduction: Returns a POINT guaranteed to lie on the surface.

Format: ST_PointOnSurface(A:geometry)

Examples:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointOnSurface(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(0 5)')));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(0 5)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointOnSurface(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 5, 0 10)')));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(0 5)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointOnSurface(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0, 0 5, 5 5, 5 0, 0 0))')));
   st_astext
----------------
 POINT(2.5 2.5)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointOnSurface(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 5 1, 0 0 1, 0 10 2)')));
   st_astext
----------------
 POINT Z(0 0 1)

ST_Polygon

Introduction: Function to create a polygon built from the given LineString and sets the spatial reference system from the srid

Format: ST_Polygon(geom: Geometry, srid: Integer)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_Polygon(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(75 29 1, 77 29 2, 77 29 3, 75 29 1)'), 4326) );

Output:

POLYGON((75 29 1, 77 29 2, 77 29 3, 75 29 1))

ST_ReducePrecision

Introduction: Reduce the decimals places in the coordinates of the geometry to the given number of decimal places. The last decimal place will be rounded. This function was called ST_PrecisionReduce in versions prior to v1.5.0.

Format: ST_ReducePrecision (A: Geometry, B: Integer)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_ReducePrecision(ST_GeomFromWKT('Point(0.1234567890123456789 0.1234567890123456789)')
    , 9)
The new coordinates will only have 9 decimal places.

Output:

POINT (0.123456789 0.123456789)

ST_RemovePoint

Introduction: RETURN Line with removed point at given index, position can be omitted and then last one will be removed.

Format: ST_RemovePoint(geom: geometry, position: integer)

Format: ST_RemovePoint(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_RemovePoint(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0)'), 1)

Output: LINESTRING(0 0, 1 0)

ST_Reverse

Introduction: Return the geometry with vertex order reversed

Format: ST_Reverse (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_AsText(
    ST_Reverse(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 2, 2 4, 3 6)'))
) AS geom

Result:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|geom                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|LINESTRING (3 6, 2 4, 1 2, 0 0)                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_S2CellIDs

Introduction: Cover the geometry with Google S2 Cells, return the corresponding cell IDs with the given level. The level indicates the size of cells. With a bigger level, the cells will be smaller, the coverage will be more accurate, but the result size will be exponentially increasing.

Format: ST_S2CellIDs(geom: geometry, level: Int)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_S2CellIDs(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 3 4, 5 6 7)'), 6)

Output:

+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|st_s2cellids(st_geomfromtext(LINESTRING(1 3 4, 5 6 7), 0), 6)                                                                 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|[1159395429071192064, 1159958379024613376, 1160521328978034688, 1161084278931456000, 1170091478186196992, 1170654428139618304]|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

ST_SetPoint

Introduction: Replace Nth point of linestring with given point. Index is 0-based. Negative index are counted backwards, e.g., -1 is last point.

Format: ST_SetPoint (linestring: geometry, index: integer, point: geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_SetPoint(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (0 0, 0 1, 1 1)'), 2, ST_GeomFromText('POINT (1 0)')) AS geom

Result:

+--------------------------+
|geom                      |
+--------------------------+
|LINESTRING (0 0, 0 1, 1 0)|
+--------------------------+

ST_SetSRID

Introduction: Sets the spatial reference system identifier (SRID) of the geometry.

Format: ST_SetSRID (A:geometry, srid: Integer)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_SetSRID(polygondf.countyshape, 3021)
FROM polygondf

ST_SimplifyPreserveTopology

Introduction: Simplifies a geometry and ensures that the result is a valid geometry having the same dimension and number of components as the input, and with the components having the same topological relationship.

Format: ST_SimplifyPreserveTopology (A:geometry, distanceTolerance: Double)

SELECT ST_SimplifyPreserveTopology(polygondf.countyshape, 10.0)
FROM polygondf

ST_Split

Introduction: Split an input geometry by another geometry (called the blade). Linear (LineString or MultiLineString) geometry can be split by a Point, MultiPoint, LineString, MultiLineString, Polygon, or MultiPolygon. Polygonal (Polygon or MultiPolygon) geometry can be split by a LineString, MultiLineString, Polygon, or MultiPolygon. In either case, when a polygonal blade is used then the boundary of the blade is what is actually split by. ST_Split will always return either a MultiLineString or MultiPolygon even if they only contain a single geometry. Homogeneous GeometryCollections are treated as a multi-geometry of the type it contains. For example, if a GeometryCollection of only Point geometries is passed as a blade it is the same as passing a MultiPoint of the same geometries.

Format: ST_Split (input: geometry, blade: geometry)

SQL Example:

SELECT ST_Split(
    ST_GeomFromWKT('LINESTRING (0 0, 1.5 1.5, 2 2)'),
    ST_GeomFromWKT('MULTIPOINT (0.5 0.5, 1 1)'))

Output: MULTILINESTRING ((0 0, 0.5 0.5), (0.5 0.5, 1 1), (1 1, 1.5 1.5, 2 2))

ST_SRID

Introduction: Return the spatial reference system identifier (SRID) of the geometry.

Format: ST_SRID (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_SRID(polygondf.countyshape)
FROM polygondf

ST_StartPoint

Introduction: Returns first point of given linestring.

Format: ST_StartPoint(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_StartPoint(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(100 150,50 60, 70 80, 160 170)'))

Output: POINT(100 150)

ST_SubDivide

Introduction: Returns a multi-geometry divided based of given maximum number of vertices.

Format: ST_SubDivide(geom: geometry, maxVertices: int)

SQL example:

SELECT Sedona.ST_AsText(Sedona.ST_SubDivide(Sedona.ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 85 85, 100 100, 120 120, 21 21, 10 10, 5 5)'), 5));

Output:

MULTILINESTRING ((0 0, 5 5), (5 5, 10 10), (10 10, 21 21), (21 21, 60 60), (60 60, 85 85), (85 85, 100 100), (100 100, 120 120))

ST_SubDivideExplode

Introduction: It works the same as ST_SubDivide but returns new rows with geometries instead of a multi-geometry.

Format: SELECT SEDONA.ST_AsText(GEOM) FROM table(SEDONA.ST_SubDivideExplode(geom: geometry, maxVertices: int))

Example:

Query:

SELECT Sedona.ST_AsText(GEOM)
FROM table(Sedona.ST_SubDivideExplode(Sedona.ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 85 85, 100 100, 120 120, 21 21, 10 10, 5 5)'), 5));

Result:

+-----------------------------+
|geom                         |
+-----------------------------+
|LINESTRING(0 0, 5 5)         |
|LINESTRING(5 5, 10 10)       |
|LINESTRING(10 10, 21 21)     |
|LINESTRING(21 21, 60 60)     |
|LINESTRING(60 60, 85 85)     |
|LINESTRING(85 85, 100 100)   |
|LINESTRING(100 100, 120 120) |
+-----------------------------+

ST_SymDifference

Introduction: Return the symmetrical difference between geometry A and B (return parts of geometries which are in either of the sets, but not in their intersection)

Format: ST_SymDifference (A:geometry, B:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_SymDifference(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((-3 -3, 3 -3, 3 3, -3 3, -3 -3))'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((-2 -3, 4 -3, 4 3, -2 3, -2 -3))'))

Result:

MULTIPOLYGON (((-2 -3, -3 -3, -3 3, -2 3, -2 -3)), ((3 -3, 3 3, 4 3, 4 -3, 3 -3)))

ST_Transform

Introduction:

Transform the Spatial Reference System / Coordinate Reference System of A, from SourceCRS to TargetCRS. For SourceCRS and TargetCRS, WKT format is also available.

Note

By default, this function uses lat/lon order. You can use ST_FlipCoordinates to swap X and Y.

Note

If ST_Transform throws an Exception called "Bursa wolf parameters required", you need to disable the error notification in ST_Transform. You can append a boolean value at the end.

Format: ST_Transform (A:geometry, SourceCRS:string, TargetCRS:string ,[Optional] DisableError)

SQL example (simple):

SELECT ST_Transform(polygondf.countyshape, 'epsg:4326','epsg:3857')
FROM polygondf

SQL example (with optional parameters):

SELECT ST_Transform(polygondf.countyshape, 'epsg:4326','epsg:3857', false)
FROM polygondf

Note

The detailed EPSG information can be searched on EPSG.io.

ST_Translate

Introduction: Returns the input geometry with its X, Y and Z coordinates (if present in the geometry) translated by deltaX, deltaY and deltaZ (if specified)

If the geometry is 2D, and a deltaZ parameter is specified, no change is done to the Z coordinate of the geometry and the resultant geometry is also 2D.

If the geometry is empty, no change is done to it. If the given geometry contains sub-geometries (GEOMETRY COLLECTION, MULTI POLYGON/LINE/POINT), all underlying geometries are individually translated.

Format: ST_Translate(geometry: geometry, deltaX: deltaX, deltaY: deltaY, deltaZ: deltaZ)

Example:

Input: ST_Translate(GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOLYGON (((1 0, 1 1, 2 1, 2 0, 1 0)), ((1 2, 3 4, 3 5, 1 2))), POINT(1, 1, 1), LINESTRING EMPTY), 2, 2, 3)

Output: GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOLYGON (((3 2, 3 3, 4 3, 4 2, 3 2)), ((3 4, 5 6, 5 7, 3 4))), POINT(3, 3, 4), LINESTRING EMPTY)

Input: ST_Translate(POINT(1, 3, 2), 1, 2)

Output: POINT(2, 5, 2)

ST_Union

Introduction: Return the union of geometry A and B

Format: ST_Union (A:geometry, B:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_Union(ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((-3 -3, 3 -3, 3 3, -3 3, -3 -3))'), ST_GeomFromWKT('POLYGON ((1 -2, 5 0, 1 2, 1 -2))'))

Result:

POLYGON ((3 -1, 3 -3, -3 -3, -3 3, 3 3, 3 1, 5 0, 3 -1))

ST_VoronoiPolygons

Introduction: Returns a two-dimensional Voronoi diagram from the vertices of the supplied geometry. The result is a GeometryCollection of Polygons that covers an envelope larger than the extent of the input vertices. Returns null if input geometry is null. Returns an empty geometry collection if the input geometry contains only one vertex. Returns an empty geometry collection if the extend_to envelope has zero area.

Format: ST_VoronoiPolygons(g1: Geometry, tolerance: Double, extend_to: Geometry)

Optional parameters:

tolerance : The distance within which vertices will be considered equivalent. Robustness of the algorithm can be improved by supplying a nonzero tolerance distance. (default = 0.0)

extend_to : If a geometry is supplied as the "extend_to" parameter, the diagram will be extended to cover the envelope of the "extend_to" geometry, unless that envelope is smaller than the default envelope (default = NULL. By default, we extend the bounding box of the diagram by the max between bounding box's height and bounding box's width).

SQL Example:

SELECT st_astext(ST_VoronoiPolygons(ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOINT ((0 0), (1 1))')));

Output:

GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POLYGON((-1 2,2 -1,-1 -1,-1 2)),POLYGON((-1 2,2 2,2 -1,-1 2)))

ST_X

Introduction: Returns X Coordinate of given Point null otherwise.

Format: ST_X(pointA: Point)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_X(ST_POINT(0.0 25.0))

Output: 0.0

ST_XMax

Introduction: Returns the maximum X coordinate of a geometry

Format: ST_XMax (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_XMax(df.geometry) AS xmax
FROM df

Input: POLYGON ((-1 -11, 0 10, 1 11, 2 12, -1 -11))

Output: 2

ST_XMin

Introduction: Returns the minimum X coordinate of a geometry

Format: ST_XMin (A:geometry)

Example:

SELECT ST_XMin(df.geometry) AS xmin
FROM df

Input: POLYGON ((-1 -11, 0 10, 1 11, 2 12, -1 -11))

Output: -1

ST_Y

Introduction: Returns Y Coordinate of given Point, null otherwise.

Format: ST_Y(pointA: Point)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Y(ST_POINT(0.0 25.0))

Output: 25.0

ST_YMax

Introduction: Return the minimum Y coordinate of A

Format: ST_YMax (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_YMax(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 1, 1 2 1, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))'))

Output: 2

ST_YMin

Introduction: Return the minimum Y coordinate of A

Format: ST_Y_Min (A:geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_YMin(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 1, 1 2 1, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))'))

Output : 0

ST_Z

Introduction: Returns Z Coordinate of given Point, null otherwise.

Format: ST_Z(pointA: Point)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_Z(ST_POINT(0.0 25.0 11.0))

Output: 11.0

ST_ZMax

Introduction: Returns Z maxima of the given geometry or null if there is no Z coordinate.

Format: ST_ZMax(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_ZMax(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 1, 1 2 1, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))'))

Output: 1.0

ST_ZMin

Introduction: Returns Z minima of the given geometry or null if there is no Z coordinate.

Format: ST_ZMin(geom: geometry)

SQL example:

SELECT ST_ZMin(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 3 4, 5 6 7)'))

Output: 4.0


Last update: January 13, 2024 10:01:29